Rule 901. Requirement of Authentication or Identification

(a) General provision. The requirement of authentication or identification as a
condition precedent to admissibility is satisfied by evidence sufficient to
support a finding that the matter in question is what its proponent claims.

(b) Illustrations. By way of illustration only, and not by way of limitation, the
following are examples of authentication or identification conforming with the
requirements of this rule:

(1) Testimony of witness with knowledge. Testimony that a matter is what it is
claimed to be.

(2) Nonexpert opinion on handwriting. Nonexpert opinion as to the genuineness
of handwriting, based upon familiarity not acquired for purposes of the

(3) Comparison by trier or expert witness. Comparison by the trier of fact or
by expert witnesses with specimens which have been authenticated.

(4) Distinctive characteristics and the like. Appearance, contents, substance,
internal patterns, or other distinctive characteristics, taken in conjunction
with circumstances.

(5) Voice identification. Identification of a voice, whether heard firsthand or
through mechanical or electronic transmission or recording, by opinion based
upon hearing the voice at any time under circumstances connecting it with the
alleged speaker.

(6) Telephone conversations. Telephone conversations, by evidence that a call
was made to the number assigned at the time by the telephone company to a
particular person or business, if (A) in the case of a person, circumstances,
including self-identification, show the person answering to be the one called,
or (B) in the case of a business, the call was made to a place of business and
the conversation related to business reasonably transacted over the telephone.

(7) Public records or reports. Evidence that a writing authorized by law to be
recorded or filed and in fact recorded or filed in a public office, or a
purported public record, report, statement, or data compilation, in any form, is
from the public office where items of this nature are kept.

(8) Ancient documents or data compilation. Evidence that a document or data
compilation, in any form, (A) is in such condition as to create no suspicion
concerning its authenticity, (B) was in a place where it, if authentic, would
likely be, and (C) has been in existence twenty years or more at the time it is

(9) Process or system. Evidence describing a process or system used to produce
a result and showing that the process or system produces an accurate result.

(10) Methods provided by statute or rule. Any method of authentication or
identification provided by applicable statute or rules.