Rule 902. Self-Authentication

Extrinsic evidence of authenticity as a condition precedent to admissibility is
not required with respect to the following:

(1) Domestic public documents under seal. A document bearing a seal purporting to
be that of the United States, or of any State, district, Commonwealth, territory,
or insular possession thereof, or the Panama Canal Zone, or the Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands, or of a political subdivision, department, officer, or agency
thereof, and a signature purporting to be an attestation or execution.

(2) Domestic public documents not under seal. A document purporting to bear the
signature in the official capacity of an officer or employee of any entity
included in paragraph (1) hereof, having no seal, if a public officer having a
seal and having official duties in the district or political subdivision of the
officer or employee certifies under seal that the signer has the official capacity
and that the signature is genuine.

(3) Foreign public documents. A document purporting to be executed or attested in
an official capacity by a person authorized by the laws of a foreign country to
make the execution or attestation, and accompanied by a final certification as to
the genuineness of the signature and official position (A) of the executing or
attesting person, or (B) of any foreign official whose certificate of genuineness
of signature and official position relates to the execution or attestation or is
in a chain of certificates of genuineness of signature and official position
relating to the execution or attestation. A final certification may be made by a
secretary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice consul, or consular
agent of the United States, or a diplomatic or consular official of the foreign
country assigned or accredited to the United States. If reasonable opportunity
has been given to all parties to investigate the authenticity and accuracy of
official documents, the court may, for good cause shown, order that they be
treated as presumptively authentic without final certification or permit them to
be evidenced by an attested summary with or without final certification.

(4) Certified copies of public records. A copy of an official record or report or
entry therein, or of a document authorized by law to be recorded or filed and
actually recorded or filed in a public office, including data compilations in any
form, certified as correct by the custodian or other person authorized to make the
certification, by certificate complying with paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of this
rule or complying with any applicable statute or rule.

(5) Official publications. Books, pamphlets, or other publications purporting to
be issued by public authority.

(6) Newspapers and periodicals. Printed materials purporting to be newspapers or
periodicals.

(7) Trade inscriptions and the like. Inscriptions, signs, tags, or labels
purporting to have been affixed in the course of business and indicating
ownership, control, or origin.

(8) Acknowledged documents. Documents accompanied by a certificate of
acknowledgment executed in the manner provided by law by a notary public or other
officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments.

(9) Commercial paper and related documents. Commercial paper, signatures thereon,
and documents relating thereto to the extent provided by general commercial law.

(10) Presumptions under statutes. Any signature, document, or other matter
declared by applicable statute to be presumptively or prima facie genuine or
authentic.

(11) Certified domestic records of regularly conducted activity. The original or
a duplicate of a domestic record of regularly conducted activity that would be
admissible under Rule 803(6) if accompanied by a written declaration of its
custodian or other qualified person certifying that the record:

(a) was made at or near the time of the occurrence of the matters set forth by,
or from information transmitted by, a person with knowledge of those matters;

(b) was kept in the course of the regularly conducted activity; and

(c) was made by the regularly conducted activity as a regular practice.

A party intending to offer a record into evidence under this paragraph must
provide written notice of that intention to all adverse parties, and must make the
record and declaration available for inspection sufficiently in advance of their
offer into evidence to provide an adverse party with a fair opportunity to
challenge them.

(12) Certified Foreign Records of Regularly Conducted Activity. In a civil case,
the original or a duplicate of a foreign record of regularly conducted activity
that would be admissible under Rule 803(6) if accompanied by a written declaration
by its custodian or other qualified person certifying that the record:

(a) was made at or near the time of the occurrence of the matters set forth by,
or from information transmitted by, a person with knowledge of those matters;

(b) was kept in the course of the regularly conducted activity; and

(c) was made by the regularly conducted activity as a regular practice.

The declaration must be signed in a manner that, if falsely made, would subject
the maker to criminal penalty under the laws of the country where the declaration
is signed. A party intending to offer a record into evidence under this paragraph
must provide written notice of that intention to all adverse parties, and must
make the record and declaration available for inspection sufficiently in advance
of their offer into evidence to provide an adverse party with a fair opportunity
to challenge them.

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